Revealing the New Testament

Includes the NRSV Bible

The New Testament is the foundational text of Christianity, the world’s most populous religion. As such, the New Testament requires informed, responsible engagement from Christians and non-Christians alike. Revealing® the New Testament is designed to equip students for such engagement by bringing the New Testament to life as a historically situated, theologically diverse, and ethically fraught text—or, rather, an anthology of early Christian texts, each with its own distinctive voice.

This lively introduction engages each of the narratives and letters that make up the New Testament on its own terms. To each of these texts questions such as the following are addressed: What is its author attempting to communicate? What were the circumstances in response to which it was written? How does its image of Jesus differ from other images of Jesus found in the New Testament? What kinds of ethical issues and moral dilemmas does this ancient text throw up for contemporary readers who embrace values such as democracy or gender equality, values seemingly at odds with those enshrined in the text? More than most New Testament textbooks, this introduction foregrounds ethical and political issues, asking what kind of stance in relation to empire or government specific New Testament texts urge, what relationships between women and men they enjoin, and other such questions.

Revealing® the New Testament aims to be the most accessible introduction to the New Testament available. No prior knowledge of the New Testament is presupposed, nor is any familiarity with Christian church life and the biblical knowledge it generates through osmosis. But this introduction does not patronize the student either. Students are not required to accept on the authority of the author any position on any textual matter independently of the evidence or reasoning that has led to it. The evidence and the arguments are clearly and meticulously laid out throughout, enabling students to draw different conclusions or construct alternative explanations. Ultimately, this introduction is designed to equip the student to become an informed participant in the vigorous, consequential, open-ended debate that is critical New Testament scholarship.

As courseware, this digital textbook contains integrated resources than no print textbook or etextbook can match. Each biblical chapter-and-verse reference is linked to the text of the New Revised Standard Version. Reading the primary source material thereby becomes an altogether more inviting experience for the student than having to trawl through a print biblical text separate from the textbook. Even extracanonical sources, such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Acts of Paul or Irenaeus’s Against Heresies and Eusebius’s Church History, are linked to the text when they are referenced. Each technical or potentially unfamiliar term in the text is linked to a glossary definition, another feature that makes this introduction uniquely accessible. Creatively designed interactive exercises distributed throughout each module make understanding and retention enjoyable activities for the student. Over a thousand images from ancient material culture and the history of biblical reception are also available to the reader, one image for every paragraph of text. Revealing the New Testament imparts the basics of New Testament study engagingly and accessibly.

Revealing® the New Testament Modules:

  • Exploring the New Testament: What It Is and How to Read It
  • The Gospel of Mark: A Secret Messiah
  • The Synoptic Problem: Who Copied Whom?
  • The Gospel of Matthew: Christian Judaism
  • The Gospel of Luke: Elite Gospel of the Poor
  • The Acts of the Apostles: To the Ends of the Earth
  • The Gospel and Letters of John: What Was from the Beginning
  • The Lives of Paul: “I have become all things to all people”
  • The Letters of Paul: “My anxiety for all the churches”
  • Paul, Women, Homosexuality: “Maintain the traditions handed on to you”
  • The Pseudo-Pauline Letters: In the Name of the Apostle
  • The General Letters: Specific Instructions for General Audiences
  • The Book of Revelation: “I will show you what must take place”

About the Author: Stephen D. Moore, Ph.D. (Drew University)

Stephen D. Moore is Edmund S. Janes Professor of New Testament Studies in the Theological School and Graduate Division of Religion at Drew University, Madison, New Jersey. A native of Ireland, he received the Ph.D. in New Testament from the University of Dublin (Trinity College) long ago. He is the author or co-author, editor or co-editor of around two dozen books, including Literary Criticism and the Gospels: The Theoretical Challenge (Yale University Press, 1989); The Postmodern Bible (Yale University Press, 1995); God’s Gym: Divine Male Bodies of the Bible (Routledge, 1996); God’s Beauty Parlor: And Other Queer Spaces in and around the Bible (Stanford University Press, 2001); Empire and Apocalypse: Postcolonialism and the New Testament (Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006); Mark and Method: New Approaches in Biblical Studies (with Janice Capel Anderson; Fortress Press, 2008, 2nd ed.); The Invention of the Biblical Scholar: A Critical Manifesto (with Yvonne Sherwood; Fortress Press, 2011); and Untold Tales from the Book of Revelation: Sex and Gender, Empire and Ecology (SBL Press, 2014). He has served on the editorial boards of many journals, including the Journal of Biblical Literature. He has been learning from teaching the New Testament for more than thirty years, and his most treasured professional achievements are the teaching awards he has won.

Price: $76.00

Exploring the New Testament

Snapshot of the New Testament
  • Goals: Snapshot of the New Testament
  • New Testament Paradoxes
  • Books of the New Testament
  • Navigating the New Testament
  • The Letters
  • The Gospels
  • Summary: Snapshot of the New Testament
  • Try It: Snapshot of the New Testament
The Composite Christ
  • Goals: The Composite Christ
  • Blending the Gospels
  • Jesus’ Early Life
  • The Mission Begins
  • The Miracle Worker
  • The Teacher & the Disciples
  • Three Years or One Year?
  • John’s Contributions
  • The Final Days
  • Resurrection & Return
  • Summary: The Composite Christ
  • Try It: The Composite Christ
Apostolic Acts, Apocalyptic Visions
  • Goals: Apostolic Acts, Apocalyptic Visions
  • Acts of the Apostles: A Sequel
  • Christian Beginnings
  • Persecution & Expansion
  • Paul’s Role
  • Questions & Problems
  • Acts & History
  • Revelation: An Apocalypse
  • Summary: Apostolic Acts, Apocalyptic Visions
  • Try It: Apostolic Acts, Apocalyptic Visions
The Order of the New Testament
  • Goals: The Order of the New Testament
  • Which Came First?
  • Order of the Letters
  • Order of the Gospels
  • Ancient Traditions & Modern Skepticism
  • Summary: The Order of the New Testament
  • Try It: The Order of the New Testament
Before a Christian Canon
  • Goals: Before a Christian Canon
  • Why This Canon?
  • Toward a Canon
  • Jewish Scripture as Christian Scripture
  • Beginnings of Christian Scripture
  • Origins of the Term “New Testament”
  • The Earliest Christian Scripture
  • Marcion’s Collection
  • How Were Paul’s Letters Collected?
  • Circulation of the Gospels
  • Nag Hammadi Library
  • Summary: Before a Christian Canon
  • Try It: Before a Christian Canon
A Closed Canon, More or Less
  • Goals: A Closed Canon, More or Less
  • Canon, Church & Empire
  • Accepted Writings
  • Revelation Runs into Trouble
  • Other Writings
  • New Testaments That Might Have Been
  • Canonical Criteria
  • Athanasius’s List
  • Jerome’s Vulgate
  • Other Christian Canons
  • Summary: A Closed Canon, More or Less
  • Try It: A Closed Canon, More or Less
The New Testament Scholar
  • Goals: The New Testament Scholar
  • What Is a New Testament Scholar?
  • The Historical & the Mythical
  • Hostility Toward Christianity?
  • Diversifying the Discipline
  • The Historical-Critical Method
  • The Scholar as Detective
  • The Scholar as Specialist
  • More on Method
  • Objectivity: Ideal & Myth
  • Summary: The New Testament Scholar
  • Try It: The New Testament Scholar
Textual Criticism
  • Goals: Textual Criticism
  • Centrality of Textual Criticism
  • Translations without Originals
  • The Oldest Manuscript
  • Other Manuscripts
  • Challenges of Textual Criticism
  • Scribal Errors & Revisions
  • The More Difficult Reading
  • A Multitude of Methods
  • Plan of Attack
  • Summary: Textual Criticism
  • Try It: Textual Criticism
Redaction & Narrative Criticisms
  • Goals: Redaction & Narrative Criticisms
  • Emergence of Redaction Criticism
  • What Redaction Criticism Does
  • Emergence of Form Criticism
  • Theology, Community, History
  • Emergence of Narrative Criticism
  • Plot, Character, Point of View
  • Irony
  • Summary: Redaction & Narrative Criticisms
  • Try It: Redaction & Narrative Criticisms
The Reader Writes Back
  • Goals: The Reader Writes Back
  • Submissive & Resistant Reading
  • Interrogating the “Good Book”
  • Feminist Criticism
  • Queer Criticism
  • Bible & Empire
  • Historical Criticism & Beyond
  • Summary: The Reader Writes Back
  • Try It: The Reader Writes Back
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Gospel of Mark

Outline: Mark
  • The Gospel of Mark
Reading Mark on Its Own Terms
  • Goals: Reading Mark on Its Own Terms
  • Skipping from Book to Book
  • Reading One Author at a Time
  • Mark Overshadowed
  • Mark as “Summarizer”
  • The Earliest Gospel
  • Mark’s Jesus & Other Characters
  • Summary: Reading Mark on Its Own Terms
  • Try It: Reading Mark on Its Own Terms
The Beginning of the Gospel
  • Goals: The Beginning of the Gospel
  • An Abrupt Beginning
  • An Apocalyptic Gospel
  • The Son of God
  • Mark & Empire
  • Recruiting Disciples
  • A Cosmic Battle
  • Summary: The Beginning of the Gospel
  • Try It: The Beginning of the Gospel
The Messianic Secret
  • Goals: The Messianic Secret
  • A Secret Messiah
  • A Theology of the Cross
  • An Awkward Secret
  • Elite Disciples
  • The Disciples’ Finest Moment
  • Jesus’ Mother
  • Summary: The Messianic Secret
  • Try It: The Messianic Secret
Disciples Running, Stumbling, Falling
  • Goals: Disciples Running, Stumbling, Falling
  • The Parables Discourse
  • Mark’s Parable Theory
  • A Cloud & a Storm
  • Casting Out Demons (and Romans)
  • Restoring Israel
  • Hard-Hearted Disciples
  • Jesus Outmaneuvered & Frustrated
  • Summary: Running, Stumbling, Falling
  • Try It: Disciples Running, Stumbling, Falling
Jerusalem, the Cross & the Tomb
  • Goals: Jerusalem, the Cross & the Tomb
  • The Pivot of the Plot
  • Glory & Failure
  • The Passion Predictions
  • The Son of Man
  • Conflict at Jerusalem
  • Insiders & Outsiders
  • The Centurion
  • Female Followers
  • Summary: Jerusalem, the Cross & the Tomb
  • Try It: Jerusalem, the Cross & the Tomb
Who Was Mark & Why Did He Write?
  • Goals: Who Was Mark & Why Did He Write?
  • Endings of Mark
  • Who Wrote Mark?
  • Where Did Mark Write?
  • When Did Mark Write?
  • Destruction of the Temple
  • Jesus’ Imminent Return
  • Nero’s Persecution
  • Between Two Catastrophes
  • Anti-Imperial Ethics
  • Christianity & Empire
  • Summary: Who Was Mark & Why Did He Write?
  • Try It: Who Was Mark & Why Did He Write?
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The Synoptic Problem

The Problem & Why It Matters
  • Goals: The Problem & Why It Matters
  • The Lives of Jesus
  • Synoptic Gospels, Synoptic Problem
  • Main Solutions
  • Why the Synoptic Problem Matters
  • Ancient Solutions
  • Valuing Contradictions
  • Summary: The Problem & Why It Matters
  • Try It: The Problem & Why It Matters
How We Know They Copied
  • Goals: How We Know They Copied
  • Eyewitness Accounts?
  • Not Eyewitness Accounts
  • The Oral Tradition
  • Literary Dependence
  • Summary: How We Know They Copied
  • Try It: How We Know They Copied
The Solutions & Their Problems
  • Goals: The Solutions & Their Problems
  • Augustine’s Solution
  • Griesbach’s Solution
  • The Two Document Hypothesis
  • Mark’s Priority
  • Mark’s Obscurity
  • Minor Agreements
  • A Simpler Solution?
  • Summary: The Solutions & Their Problems
  • Try It: The Solutions & Their Problems
The Sayings Gospel Q
  • Goals: The Sayings Gospel Q
  • The Q Engima
  • The Sayings Gospel Genre
  • Dispensing with Q?
  • Was Q Written?
  • A Q Christology?
  • Did Mark Use Q?
  • M & L Material
  • Q, M, L
  • From 2DH to 4SH
  • Summary: The Sayings Gospel Q
  • Try It: The Sayings Gospel Q
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Gospel of Matthew

Outline: Matthew
  • The Gospel of Matthew
A New Moses
  • Goals: A New Moses
  • Matthew’s Preeminence
  • A Teaching Gospel
  • A Structured Gospel
  • A Revised Mark
  • Bookending Mark
  • Jesus’ Teaching in Matthew
  • Five Blocks, Five Books
  • Moses-Jesus Parallels
  • Israel-Jesus Parallels
  • Summary: A New Moses
  • Try It: A New Moses
A Divine Messiah
  • Goals: A Divine Messiah
  • Genealogy & Theology
  • Genealogy & Sexuality
  • Matthew’s Mary
  • Matthew & Scripture
  • A Sinful Jesus?
  • Matthew’s High Christology
  • Summary: A Divine Messiah
  • Try It: A Divine Messiah
Radical Ethics, Erratic Disciples
  • Goals: Radical Ethics, Erratic Disciples
  • The Sermon on the Mount
  • “You of little faith”
  • The Missionary Discourse
  • The Discourse on the Church
  • Cowardly Disciples
  • Comprehending Disciples
  • Peter’s Prominence
  • Female Disciples?
  • Summary: Radical Ethics, Erratic Disciples
  • Try It: Radical Ethics, Erratic Disciples
Editing Mark, Authoring Matthew
  • Goals: Editing Mark, Authoring Matthew
  • Demystifying Mark’s Parables
  • Closing Mark’s Open Ending
  • Demystifying Mark’s Crucifixion
  • Glorifying Mark’s “Young Man”
  • Who Wrote Matthew?
  • When & Where?
  • Summary: Editing Mark, Authoring Matthew
  • Try It: Editing Mark, Authoring Matthew
A Jewish Gospel
  • Goals: A Jewish Gospel
  • Matthew’s Jewish Community
  • The Greatest Commandments
  • Observance in Matthew’s Community
  • Matthew & Paul on the Torah
  • Scribes & Pharisees
  • The Crisis within Judaism
  • Summary: A Jewish Gospel
  • Try It: A Jewish Gospel
Anti-Judaism & Anti-Semitism
  • Goals: Anti-Judaism & Anti-Semitism
  • “His blood be on us…”
  • An Anti-Semitic Gospel?
  • An Anti-Jewish Gospel?
  • Jesus, Moses, & the Torah
  • The Punishment of Jerusalem
  • “Go…to the lost sheep…”
  • The Great Commission
  • Summary: Anti-Judaism & Anti-Semitism
  • Try It: Anti-Judaism & Anti-Semitism
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Gospel of Luke

Outline: Luke
  • The Gospel of Luke
Author & Audience
  • Goals: Author & Audience
  • The Author of Luke & Acts
  • What We Know About Luke
  • Luke, Companion of Paul?
  • The Two Pauls
  • The Authorship of Acts
  • Who Was Theophilus?
  • When Was Luke Written?
  • Luke & Gentiles
  • Summary: Author & Audience
  • Try It: Author & Audience
The Disciples in Luke
  • Goals: The Disciples in Luke
  • Disciples on Supernatural Strings
  • Concealing & Revealing
  • Satan’s Return
  • Spirit Possession
  • Summary: The Disciples in Luke
  • Try It: The Disciples in Luke
The Gospel of Women?
  • Goals: The Gospel of Women?
  • Bringing Mary Forward
  • Pairing Women with Men
  • Jesus’ Female Followers
  • Taking Martha Out of the Kitchen
  • Women Disciples in Luke?
  • A Female Prophet in Mark
  • From Prophet to Prostitute
  • A Missing Woman
  • Summary: The Gospel of Women?
  • Try It: The Gospel of Women?
Luke & Empire
  • Goals: Luke & Empire
  • Luke & Roman History
  • Counter-Imperial Christology
  • Pro-Roman Luke?
  • Anti-Roman Luke?
  • Ambivalence Toward Rome
  • Summary: Luke & Empire
  • Try It: Luke & Empire
The Gospel of the Poor
  • Goals: The Gospel of the Poor
  • Luke & Liberation
  • Peasant Beginnings
  • Sermon on the Plain
  • Reversals of Rich & Poor
  • The Two Teachings on Wealth
  • Summary: The Gospel of the Poor
  • Try It: The Gospel of the Poor
The Gospel of Prayer
  • Goals: The Gospel of Prayer
  • When Jesus Prays
  • Jesus’ Humanity
  • Summary: The Gospel of Prayer
  • Try It: The Gospel of Prayer
Luke & the End of History
  • Goals: Luke & the End of History
  • When Is the End Coming?
  • When Will Jesus Return?
  • The Present Kingdom of God
  • The Future Kingdom of God
  • Summary: Luke & the End of History
  • Try It: Luke & the End of History
An Exemplary Death
  • Goals: An Exemplary Death
  • Less of a Victim
  • Jesus’ Masculinity
  • Jesus’ Last Words
  • A Less Bleak Passion Narrative
  • Summary: An Exemplary Death
  • Try It: An Exemplary Death
Converging on Jerusalem
  • Goals: Converging on Jerusalem
  • Why Jerusalem?
  • Mentions of Jerusalem
  • The “Great Insertion”
  • Journey to Jerusalem
  • Destruction of Jerusalem
  • Centrality of Jerusalem
  • Summary: Converging on Jerusalem
  • Try It: Converging on Jerusalem
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Acts of the Apostles

Outline: Acts of the Apostles
  • The Acts of the Apostles
What Kind of Book Is Acts?
  • Goals: What Kind of Book Is Acts?
  • The Story of Acts
  • The Readability of Acts
  • The Genre of Acts
  • Was Paul an Eloquent Speaker?
  • Methods of an Ancient Historian
  • A More Entertaining History
  • Summary: What Kind of Book Is Acts?
  • Try It: What Kind of Book Is Acts?
The Ascension in Acts
  • Goals: The Ascension in Acts
  • The Hinge Between Luke & Acts
  • Ancient Ascensions
  • Forty Days of Symbolism
  • The Restoration of Israel
  • Once Again Jerusalem
  • Summary: The Ascension in Acts
  • Try It: The Ascension in Acts
Acts & Africa
  • Goals: Acts & Africa
  • Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria
  • Ends of the Earth: Rome?
  • Ends of the Earth: Ethiopia?
  • The Ethiopian Eunuch
  • Complicating the Plot
  • Summary: Acts & Africa
  • Try It: Acts & Africa
The Jewishness of Acts
  • Goals: The Jewishness of Acts
  • Replacing Judas
  • Why Twelve Apostles?
  • Israel & Torah in Acts
  • Was Luke Jewish?
  • Descent of the Holy Spirit
  • Two Takes on Tongues
  • Uniting Israel
  • Summary: The Jewishness of Acts
  • Try It: The Jewishness of Acts
The Acts of the Holy Spirit
  • Goals: Acts of the Holy Spirit
  • Preoccupied with the Spirit
  • God’s Spirit in the Jewish Scriptures
  • The Holy Spirit in Luke-Acts
  • Disciples Learn to Pray
  • Summary: Acts of the Holy Spirit
  • Try It: Acts of the Holy Spirit
Representations of Women in Acts
  • Goals: Representations of Women in Acts
  • Female Disciples
  • Invisible Women
  • Male Witnesses
  • Respectable Women
  • Female Benefactors
  • Summary: Representations of Women in Acts
  • Try It: Representations of Women in Acts
Mission to the Gentiles in Acts
  • Goals: Mission to the Gentiles in Acts
  • The Heroes of Acts
  • On the Road to Damascus
  • Paul’s Importance
  • The Jerusalem Council
  • Missionary Journeys
  • Acts & Empire
  • Summary: Mission to the Gentiles in Acts
  • Try It: Mission to the Gentiles in Acts
Paul of Acts vs. Paul of the Letters
  • Goals: Paul of Acts vs. Paul of the Letters
  • A Recurrent Pattern in Acts
  • Acts & Christian Anti-Judaism
  • Paul’s Version of Paul
  • Did Paul Preach to Jews?
  • Was Paul an Apostle?
  • No Dirty Laundry
  • No Friction
  • Why Paul Is Not Himself in Acts
  • Summary: Paul of Acts vs. Paul of the Letters
  • Try It: Paul of Acts vs. Paul of the Letters
The Open-Endedness of Acts
  • Goals: The Open-Endedness of Acts
  • Before Gentiles & Kings
  • Before the Emperor
  • Paul & Nero
  • Another Empire, Another King
  • Summary: The Open-Endedness of Acts
  • Try It: The Open-Endedness of Acts
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Gospel & Letters of John

Outline: Gospel of John
  • The Gospel of John
Why John Is Different
  • Goals: Why John Is Different
  • John & Imperial Christianity
  • A Divine Jesus
  • John’s Independence
  • A Jesus Older than the Universe
  • What John’s Jesus Teaches
  • A Different Chronology
  • The Lamb of God
  • The Johannine Language
  • John’s Jesus & History
  • An Evolving Gospel
  • Summary: Why John Is Different
  • Try It: Why John Is Different
Who Wrote John?
  • Goals: Who Wrote John?
  • The Beloved Disciple
  • Not an Apostle?
  • Who Was the Beloved Disciple?
  • The Beloved Disciple as Symbol
  • The Beloved Disciple as Author
  • Gospel of the Beloved Disciple
  • Summary: Who Wrote John?
  • Try It: Who Wrote John?
The Preexistent Son
  • Goals: The Preexistent Son
  • High versus Low Christology
  • Preexistence Christology
  • Divine Sonship
  • Preexistent Divine Sonship
  • Paul & John
  • John 1 & Jewish Scripture
  • The Preexistent Messiah
  • Summary: The Preexistent Son
  • Try It: The Preexistent Son
Disciples & Other Characters
  • Goals: Disciples & Other Characters
  • Wrestling with John the Baptist
  • Perceptive Disciples
  • Courageous Disciples
  • A Dumbed-Down Peter
  • Male Insider, Female Outsider
  • Summary: Disciples & Other Characters
  • Try It: Disciples & Other Characters
John & Judaism
  • Goals: John & Judaism
  • A Troublesome Theme
  • Wedding at Cana
  • Seven Signs
  • Seven “I Am” Sayings
  • Superseding Judaism
  • Is John Anti-Jewish?
  • Who Are “the Jews” in John?
  • Summary: John & Judaism
  • Try It: John & Judaism
John & Empire
  • Goals: John & Empire
  • The Political Gospel
  • The Trials of Jesus
  • No Punishment for Rome
  • John’s “World”
  • King Jesus
  • Features of a Resurrected Body
  • Scarred by Empire
  • Summary: John & Empire
  • Try It: John & Empire
Outline: Letters of John
  • The Letters of John
Community in Crisis
  • Goals: Community in Crisis
  • God Is Love
  • Three Letters, One Author
  • A Johannine School
  • A Parallel Universe
  • A New Crisis
  • “Love one another”
  • “They went out from us”
  • Summary: Community in Crisis
  • Try It: Community in Crisis
Christological Divisions
  • Goals: Christological Divisions
  • Many Antichrists
  • Defining Antichrist
  • Christological Litmus Test
  • “The flesh is useless”
  • 1 John’s Prologue
  • Light & Love
  • Atoning Sacrifice
  • Truth & Error
  • Summary: Christological Divisions
  • Try It: Christological Divisions
Eschatologies & Enemies
  • Goals: Eschatologies & Enemies
  • Realized Eschatology
  • Futurist Eschatology
  • Why the End Is at Hand
  • Expulsions & Counter-Expulsions
  • Loving the Poor
  • Summary: Eschatologies & Enemies
  • Try It: Eschatologies & Enemies
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Lives of Paul

Problems with Paul
  • Goals: Problems with Paul
  • The Founder of Christianity?
  • Making Sense of Paul
  • Ethical Problems with Paul
  • Summary: Problems with Paul
  • Try It: Problems with Paul
Was Paul Upper Class?
  • Goals: Was Paul Upper Class?
  • The Historical Paul?
  • A Jew & a Pharisee
  • Paul of Tarsus?
  • A Roman Citizen?
  • A Cosmopolitan Figure
  • Paul’s Trade
  • Summary: Was Paul Upper Class?
  • Try It: Was Paul Upper Class?
The Turning Point
  • Goals: The Turning Point
  • Paul the Persecutor
  • Not a Conversion
  • Paul’s Transformation
  • Summary: The Turning Point
  • Try It: The Turning Point
The Labors of an Apostle
  • Goals: The Labors of an Apostle
  • Apostle to the Gentiles
  • Dating Paul’s Mission
  • Traveler & Missionary
  • Dating Paul’s Letters
  • Paul’s Ambitions
  • “Remember the poor”
  • Paul’s Collection
  • Paul’s Final Years
  • Summary: The Labors of an Apostle
  • Try It: The Labors of an Apostle
Paul, Judaism & Genocide
  • Goals: Paul, Judaism & Genocide
  • Seismic Shift in Pauline Studies
  • Theological Anti-Judaism
  • Augustine & Paul
  • Luther & Paul
  • Untouched by the Revolution
  • Paul & Anti-Semitism
  • Was Paul Anti-Jewish?
  • Summary: Paul, Judaism & Genocide
  • Try It: Paul, Judaism & Genocide
A New Perspective on Paul
  • Goals: New Perspective on Paul
  • A Sect within Judaism
  • Paul’s Pride in His Judaism
  • Rediscovering Ancient Judaism
  • In the Covenant Community
  • Criticisms of the New Perspective
  • Paul & Judaism Today
  • Summary: New Perspective on Paul
  • Try It: New Perspective on Paul
Paul & Empire
  • Goals: Paul & Empire
  • Shifting Perspective
  • Ultimate Context
  • Recontextualizing Romans
  • De-idealizing Paul
  • Decentering Paul
  • Summary: Paul & Empire
  • Try It: Paul & Empire
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Letters of Paul

Apocalyptic Thessalonians
  • Outline: First Letter to the Thessalonians
  • Goals: Apocalyptic Thessalonians
  • One Letter, Three Authors
  • Acts & 1 Thessalonians
  • Paul’s Missionary Strategy
  • Expecting the End
  • The Rapture
  • The Rival Emperor Returns
  • Persecution in Thessalonica
  • Bitter Condemnation
  • Another Letter to the Thessalonians
  • Summary: Apocalyptic Thessalonians
  • Try It: Apocalyptic Thessalonians
Contentious Corinthians 1
  • Outline: First Letter to the Corinthians
  • Outline: Second Letter to the Corinthians
  • Goals: Contentious Corinthians 1
  • Practical Letters
  • The “Church” in Pauline Christianity
  • An Adventurous Community
  • Counting the Letters to Corinth
  • “We proclaim Christ crucified”
  • Household Heads & Their Slaves
  • Rich & Poor, Jew & Gentile
  • A Conflicted Community
  • Summary: Contentious Corinthians 1
  • Try It: Contentious Corinthians 1
Contentious Corinthians 2
  • Goals: Contentious Corinthians 2
  • Paul & Apollos
  • Handed Over to Satan
  • A Court of Believers
  • Sex & Celibacy
  • The Question of Divorce
  • Paul’s Political Thought
  • Food Sacrificed to Idols
  • Early Christian Worship
  • Speaking in Tongues
  • On Resurrection
  • Summary: Contentious Corinthians 2
  • Try It: Contentious Corinthians 2
Contentious Corinthians 3
  • Goals: Contentious Corinthians 3
  • A Memorable Muddle
  • Crime & Punishment
  • Authority from Afar
  • Rival Apostles, Super Apostles
  • The Hardship List
  • Visions & Revelations
  • Odd Honor
  • No Pain, No Gain
  • Summary: Contentious Corinthians 3
  • Try It: Contentious Corinthians 3
Anguished Apostle: Galatians
  • Outline: Letter to the Galatians
  • Goals: Anguished Apostle: Galatians
  • Crisis in Galatia
  • A Letter to Men
  • Rival Missionaries
  • Where Was Galatia?
  • Dating Galatians
  • Paul & the Jerusalem Church
  • Galatians & Judaism
  • Paul on Abraham
  • Paul on the Spirit
  • Summary: Anguished Apostle: Galatians
  • Try It: Anguished Apostle: Galatians
Judaism after Jesus: Romans
  • Outline: Letter to the Romans
  • Goals: Judaism after Jesus: Romans
  • Romans in Context
  • Jesus of Romans
  • Romans & Rome
  • Gentiles & Jews
  • Romans & Galatians
  • Sin & Atonement
  • Romans & Empire
  • Romans & Ecology
  • Summary: Judaism after Jesus: Romans
  • Try It: Judaism after Jesus: Romans
Beloved Philippians
  • Outline: Letter to the Philippians
  • Goals: Beloved Philippians
  • A Quotable, Joyful Letter
  • The Philippian Church
  • One Letter or Several?
  • Where Was It Written?
  • Opponents & Boasts
  • The Christ Hymn
  • Summary: Beloved Philippians
  • Try It: Beloved Philippians
Paul & Slavery: Philemon
  • Outline: Letter to Philemon
  • Goals: Paul & Slavery: Philemon
  • Private Letter, Small Matter?
  • Ancient & Modern Slavery
  • Was Onesimus a Slave?
  • Where Paul Was Writing
  • Who Was Onesimus?
  • Paul’s Bold Request
  • Metaphorical & Literal Slavery
  • Summary: Paul & Slavery: Philemon
  • Try It: Paul & Slavery: Philemon
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Paul, Women, Homosexuality

Proto-Feminist Paul
  • Goals: Proto-Feminist Paul
  • Paul the Misogynist?
  • Paul & Feminism
  • A Female Apostle
  • A Female Deacon
  • Wife Before Husband
  • Hardworking Women
  • Paul & Strong Women
  • “No longer male and female”
  • Summary: Proto-Feminist Paul
  • Try It: Proto-Feminist Paul
Patriarchal Paul
  • Goals: Patriarchal Paul
  • Husband as “Head”
  • Veiling & Unveiling
  • The Reflection of Man
  • “Women should be silent”
  • Later Insertion?
  • Reconciling the Two Pauls
  • Pseudo-Paul on Gender
  • Summary: Patriarchal Paul
  • Try It: Patriarchal Paul
Homosexuality Then & Now
  • Goals: Homosexuality Then & Now
  • Homosexuality: New Testament
  • Homosexuality: Pauline Letters
  • Idolatry & Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality & Heterosexuality
  • Ancient Sex
  • “Unnatural” Women
  • “Unnatural” Men
  • Summary: Homosexuality Then & Now
  • Try It: Homosexuality Then & Now
Decoding Pauline Homosexuality
  • Goals: Decoding Pauline Homosexuality
  • The Hard & the Soft
  • “Men who lie with males”
  • “Natural” & “Unnatural” Sex
  • Pauline Sex
  • From Paul’s World to Ours
  • Summary: Decoding Pauline Homosexuality
  • Try It: Decoding Pauline Homosexuality
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Pseudo-Pauline Letters

What Is Pseudonymity?
  • Goals: What Is Pseudonymity?
  • Authorship & Apostleship
  • Ancient Pseudonymity
  • Second-Century Paul
  • Pseudonymity as Reverence
  • Pseudonymity as Forgery
  • False Authorship, False Teaching
  • Pseudonymity Today
  • Summary: What Is Pseudonymity?
  • Try It: What Is Pseudonymity?
Antichrist & 2 Thessalonians
  • Outline: 2 Thessalonians
  • Goals: Antichrist & 2 Thessalonians
  • End-Time Speculation
  • The Lawless One
  • 1 & 2 Thessalonians
  • A Pseudonymous Letter
  • When Was It Written?
  • Summary: Antichrist & 2 Thessalonians
  • Try It: Antichrist & 2 Thessalonians
The Paradox of Colossians
  • Outline: Letter to the Colossians
  • Goals: The Paradox of Colossians
  • Revolutionary Conservatism
  • The Colossian Church
  • Worship & Angels
  • Stratospheric Christology
  • Ecclesiology of Colossians
  • Pagan & Christian Household Codes
  • The Colossians Household Code
  • Authorial Options
  • Dating Colossians
  • Did Timothy Write It?
  • Summary: The Paradox of Colossians
  • Try It: The Paradox of Colossians
The Paradox of Ephesians
  • Outline: Letter to the Ephesians
  • Goals: The Paradox of Ephesians
  • Profundity & Paradox
  • Colossians as the Model
  • By Whom & To Whom?
  • Local Churches
  • Cosmic Church
  • Cosmic Christ
  • Ephesians & Judaism
  • Call to Action
  • Household Code
  • Summary: The Paradox of Ephesians
  • Try It: The Paradox of Ephesians
Double Pseudonymity
  • Outline: The Pastoral Epistles
  • Goals: Double Pseudonymity
  • Topic, Vocabulary, Style
  • Theology & Travels
  • Authorship & Date
  • Fictional Communication
  • Timothy & Titus
  • Invented Details?
  • Uniqueness of 2 Timothy
  • Summary: Double Pseudonymity
  • Try It: Double Pseudonymity
Church Leadership in the Pastorals
  • Goals: Church Leadership in the Pastorals
  • The Real Audience
  • The Opponents’ Doctrine
  • On Church Hierarchy
  • On Teaching
  • Bishops, Deacons, Elders
  • Summary: Church Leadership in the Pastorals
  • Try It: Church Leadership in the Pastorals
The Pastor & the Women
  • Goals: The Pastor & the Women
  • On Widows
  • Women & Silence
  • The Example of Eve
  • Women & Teaching
  • Women & Submission
  • Summary: The Pastor & the Women
  • Try It: The Pastor & the Women
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General Letters

The Heavenly High Priest
  • Outline: Letter to the Hebrews
  • Goals: The Heavenly High Priest
  • Who Wrote Hebrews?
  • What Is Hebrews?
  • When & to Whom?
  • Psalms & Hebrews
  • Allegory & Typology
  • Hebrews & Platonism
  • Hebrews & Judaism
  • Hebrews & Sacrifice
  • Parenting in Hebrews
  • Is Hebrews Harmful?
  • Summary: The Heavenly High Priest
  • Try It: The Heavenly High Priest
On Behalf of the Poor
  • Outline: Letter of James
  • Goals: On Behalf of the Poor
  • Who Wrote James?
  • A Jewish-Christian Homily
  • A Minimalist Christology
  • James & the Synoptics
  • James as Wisdom Literature
  • On Wealth & Poverty
  • On Faith & Works
  • James & Luther
  • James & Paul
  • James, Jesus & Paul
  • Summary: On Behalf of the Poor
  • Try It: On Behalf of the Poor
The Cross & the Empire
  • Outline: First Letter of Peter
  • Goals: The Cross & the Empire
  • Fall & Rise of Peter
  • Who Wrote 1 Peter?
  • The Audience of 1 Peter
  • Supercessionism in 1 Peter
  • 1 Peter & Paul’s Letters
  • What Is Jesus Doing?
  • Suffering in 1 Peter
  • 1 Peter’s Household Code
  • 1 Peter & Empire
  • Summary: The Cross & the Empire
  • Try It: The Cross & the Empire
Adversaries, Angels, & Sex
  • Outline: Letter of Jude
  • Goals: Adversaries, Angels, & Sex
  • Jude & Apocalypticism
  • A Little-Read Letter
  • Who Wrote Jude?
  • The Audience of Jude
  • What Is Jude Attacking?
  • Jude & Homosexuality
  • Summary: Adversaries, Angels, & Sex
  • Try It: Adversaries, Angels, & Sex
Eschatology & Ecology
  • Outline: Second Letter of Peter
  • Goals: Eschatology & Ecology
  • Who Wrote 2 Peter?
  • 2 Peter & 2 Timothy
  • 2 Peter & Jude
  • 2 Peter & 1 Peter
  • Date & Audience
  • 2 Peter’s Eschatology
  • Peter & Paul
  • Peter & Jesus
  • 2 Peter & Ecology
  • Summary: Eschatology & Ecology
  • Try It: Eschatology & Ecology
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Book of Revelation

Outline: Book of Revelation
  • Book of Revelation: Outline
What Is Revelation?
  • Goals: Revelation as Apocalypse
  • How to Read Revelation
  • Revelation as a Letter
  • Revelation & Apocalypse
  • An Apocalyptic Family
  • Revelation & 1 Enoch
  • Vision or Literature?
  • A Tissue of Quotations
  • Summary: Revelation as Apocalypse
  • Try It: Revelation as Apocalypse
Who Was John of Revelation?
  • Goals: Who Was John of Revelation?
  • Is the Author an Apostle?
  • Not an Apostle
  • Gospel & Apocalypse
  • Not Pseudonymous
  • John on Patmos
  • Summary: Who Was John of Revelation?
  • Try It: Who Was John of Revelation?
A Book of Numbers
  • Goals: A Book of Numbers
  • The Opening Vision
  • The Number Seven
  • The Number Four
  • The Number Twelve
  • The Significance of Numbers
  • Summary: A Book of Numbers
  • Try It: A Book of Numbers
Seven Letters & Seven Seals
  • Goals: Seven Letters & Seven Seals
  • Letters to Seven Churches
  • John & Jezebel
  • An Eschatological Timetable
  • A Slaughtered Lamb
  • The First Six Seals
  • The First Interlude
  • Two Enigmatic Groups
  • Summary: Seven Letters & Seven Seals
  • Try It: Seven Letters & Seven Seals
Seven Trumpets & Seven Bowls
  • Goals: Seven Trumpets & Seven Bowls
  • Seventh Seal & Six Trumpets
  • The Second Interlude
  • The Two Witnesses
  • Seventh Trumpet & Third Interlude
  • The Woman & the Dragon
  • Following the Lamb
  • Punishing Enemies
  • The First Six Bowls
  • Armageddon
  • The Seventh Bowl
  • Summary: Seven Trumpets & Seven Bowls
  • Try It: Seven Trumpets & Seven Bowls
Heaven Comes to Earth
  • Goals: Heaven Comes to Earth
  • The Celestial Superwarrior
  • The Millenium
  • Hell & Hades
  • No Rapture
  • The New Jerusalem
  • Summary: Heaven Comes to Earth
  • Try It: Heaven Comes to Earth
When Was Revelation Written?
  • Goals: When Was Revelation Written?
  • The Sea Beast
  • The Woman Named Babylon
  • Dating Revelation
  • Decrypting 666
  • Nero Once Again
  • Riddle of the Seven Emperors
  • Measuring the Temple
  • Summary: When Was Revelation Written?
  • Try It: When Was Revelation Written?
Anti-Imperial Resistance Literature
  • Goals: Anti-Imperial Resistance Literature
  • The Insatiable Empire
  • The Imperial Cult
  • The Book of Persecution
  • Gender & Empire
  • The Misogyny Debate
  • The Messianic Empire
  • The Divine Emperor
  • Summary: Anti-Imperial Resistance Literature
  • Try It: Anti-Imperial Resistance Literature
How Green Is Revelation?
  • Goals: How Green Is Revelation?
  • Visions of Earth’s Destruction
  • Anti-Earth or Anti-Imperial?
  • Paradise Restored
  • An Outsized City
  • An Animal Christology
  • Summary: How Green Is Revelation?
  • Try It: How Green Is Revelation?
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