Revealing the Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible has shaped the lives of millions of people over more than two millennia. It is scripture for Judaism and Christianity, and sacred text for Islam. Exploration of this powerful text should be just as exciting as its history and content. Revealing® the Hebrew Bible employs a conversational style based on more than three decades of enthusiastic undergraduate classroom teaching. Assuming no prior knowledge of the Hebrew Bible, this introductory text blends an emphasis on both story and scholarship. Readers who know the stories of the Hebrew Bible well will enjoy their retelling, while attention to the compelling insights provided by historical scholarship will lend deeper meaning to and appreciation of the stories. Readers for whom the Hebrew Bible is at best a distant acquaintance can shake hands with the text in ways that are reader- and user-friendly.

Revealing® the Hebrew Bible establishes a firm foundation for a conversation with the text by addressing the fundamental questions necessary for navigating the text and for historical understanding of its rich contents. For example:

  • What distinguishes scripture from other texts?
  • How did the different books come to be united under one cover?
  • In what ways has the Hebrew Bible influenced Western civilization?
  • How do scholars use tools like literary analysis, archaeology, and tradition analysis to recover the authors’ intended meanings?
  • Out of what kind of world did the stories emerge?

The exploration progresses using the history of ancient Israel as its framework, emphasizing how the contents emerge from and speak to their ancient Near Eastern circumstances. Revealing® the Hebrew Bible is designed so that professors may select the modules they wish to teach. However, several modules—such as those on ancient Near Eastern and Israelite prophecy–when taught together, provide especially deep insights into the material.

The text provides not only frequent references to the primary sources, but the primary sources themselves, and especially the Hebrew Bible. Links to the relevant passages encourage students to explore the materials. The translation of the Hebrew Bible provided is the New Revised Standard Version.

Often, introductions to the Hebrew Bible either overwhelm their readers with historical detail—neglecting the powerful contents of the various books—or treat the content as if it were written just yesterday, ignoring the valuable insights provided by historical analysis. Revealing® the Hebrew Bible combines the best of both worlds.

Revealing® the Hebrew Bible Modules:

  • The Hebrew Bible
  • Reading the Hebrew Bible
  • World of the Patriarchs
  • Patriarchs & Their Travels
  • Exodus from Egypt
  • In the Promised Land
  • Order Out of Chaos
  • Ancient Near Eastern Prophecy
  • Classical Israelite Prophets 1
  • Classical Israelite Prophets 2
  • Going Home to Jerusalem
  • Books of Wisdom
  • Songs & Stories

About the Author: Barry Sang, Ph.D. (Catawba College)

Barry Sang is Professor of Religion and chair of the Religion and Philosophy Department at Catawba College where he has taught since the fall of 1985. Dr. Sang has earned the Swink Prize for Outstanding Classroom Teaching (awarded by the Faculty Senate), the Trustee Award for Outstanding Contribution to the College, and currently holds the Weaver Endowed Chair of Humanities. He holds a B.A. from Carroll College; a M.Div. from Colgate Rochester Theological Seminary; and a M.Phil. and Ph.D. in Biblical Studies from Drew University. Dr. Sang maintains ordinations in the American Baptist Churches, USA, and in the Presbyterian Church, USA. His fields of interest and publication are Old Testament prophecy, New Testament studies, and process theology.

Price: $74.00

The Hebrew Bible

Uniqueness of Our Text
  • Goals: Uniqueness of Our Text
  • Books, Chapters, Verses
  • Nature of Sacred Literature
  • Hebrew Bible in Literature & Art
  • Hebrew Bible in Music
  • Hebrew Bible in Popular Culture
  • Summary: Uniqueness of Our Text
  • Try It: Uniqueness of Our Text
Approaches to the Hebrew Bible
  • Goals: Approaches to the Hebrew Bible
  • We Read with Purpose
  • A Word about Our Terminology
  • Confessional Reading
  • Academic Study of the Hebrew Bible
  • Exegesis
  • Not Eisegesis
  • Bridging the Interpretive Gap
  • Keeping Perspective
  • Summary: Approaches to the Hebrew Bible
  • Try It: Approaches to the Hebrew Bible
Overview of the Hebrew Bible
  • Goals: Overview of the Hebrew Bible
  • Many Types of Literature
  • Narratives
  • Poetry
  • The Teachings
  • The Prophets
  • The Writings
  • Jewish & Christian Bibles
  • Summary: Overview of the Hebrew Bible
  • Try It: Overview of the Hebrew Bible
Canonization
  • Goals: Canonization
  • Scriptural Religions
  • Why a Canon?
  • First Indicators of Torah
  • Prophets & the Canon
  • Writings & the Canon
  • Almost a Canon
  • Apocrypha
  • Exilic Beginnings
  • Mishnah & the Masoretes
  • A Word about Ancient Hebrew
  • Canonization of the Christian Bible
  • Summary: Canonization
  • Try It: Canonization
Translation
  • Goals: Translation
  • From Hebrew to Latin
  • From Hebrew to German
  • From Latin to English
  • Authorized (King James) Version
  • Revised & Revised Standard Versions
  • New Revised Standard Version
  • Jewish Translations of Tanakh
  • Summary: Translation
  • Try It: Translation
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Reading the Hebrew Bible

Who Wrote These Books?
  • Goals: Who Wrote These Books?
  • Mosaic Authorship of Torah
  • Literary Analysis of Torah
  • Composite Authorship
  • Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis
  • Male Authors
  • Yahwist Narrative
  • Elohist Narrative
  • Deuteronomist Narrative
  • Priestly Narrative
  • Gunkel: Revisions
  • Historical Analysis in Action
  • Summary: Who Wrote These Books?
  • Try It: Who Wrote These Books?
Textual Analysis
  • Goals: Textual Analysis
  • Oral Roots
  • Scribal Variants
  • Gathering Manuscripts
  • Evaluating Varying Texts
  • Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Essenes
  • Dead Sea Scrolls: Textual Variants
  • Significance of Textual Analysis
  • Summary: Textual Analysis
  • Try It: Textual Analysis
Form Analysis
  • Goals: Form Analysis
  • What Is Form Analysis?
  • Psalms as a Sample Case
  • Types of Poetic Parallelism
  • Legends
  • Glimpses of Literary Evolution
  • Why Form Analysis?
  • Summary: Form Analysis
  • Try It: Form Analysis
Stories
  • Goals: Stories
  • The Nature & Appeal of Story
  • How We Will Proceed
  • Some Terminology
  • The Genesis Narrative
  • Active Listening
  • The Interpretive Gap
  • Summary: Stories
  • Try It: Stories
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World of the Patriarchs

The Fertile Crescent
  • Goals: The Fertile Crescent
  • Geography Matters
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Mesopotamia
  • Ancient Canaan & Palestine
  • Six Geographic Zones
  • Rainfall & Temperature
  • Tough Trading
  • Summary: The Fertile Crescent
  • Try It: The Fertile Crescent
Biblical Archaeology
  • Goals: Biblical Archaeology
  • Impact on Biblical Studies
  • Stratigraphy
  • Typologies
  • Chronologies
  • Archaeology Is Hard Work
  • Special Challenges
  • Summary: Biblical Archaeology
  • Try It: Biblical Archaeology
Mesopotamian Beginnings
  • Goals: Mesopotamian Beginnings
  • Ancient Sumer
  • Classical Sumerian Age
  • Conquest & Syncretism
  • Revival of Sumerian Culture
  • Ascent of the Amorites
  • Old Babylon
  • Summary: Mesopotamian Beginnings
  • Try It: Mesopotamian Beginnings
Massive Mesopotamian Migrations
  • Goals: Massive Mesopotamian Migrations
  • Migrations in Mesopotamia
  • Hurrians & Hittites
  • Hyksos
  • Hyksos, Abraham, & Joseph
  • Hyksos & Habiru
  • Summary: Massive Mesopotamian Migrations
  • Try It: Massive Mesopotamian Migrations
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Patriarchs & Their Travels

Travels of Abram
  • Goals: Travels of Abram
  • Abram, the First Patriarch
  • From Ur to Haran
  • Ur of the Chaldeans
  • Beginning of the Covenant
  • Following the Promise of God
  • Abram & Sarai in Egypt
  • In the Negev
  • What Happened to Lot?
  • Summary: Travels of Abram
  • Try It: Travels of Abram
The Covenant Revisited
  • Goals: The Covenant Revisited
  • Righteousness
  • Cutting a Covenant
  • Sarai & Hagar
  • Covenant Revisited
  • New Names
  • The Promised Heir
  • Summary: The Covenant Revisited
  • Try It: The Covenant Revisited
Religion of the Patriarchs
  • Goals: Religion of the Patriarchs
  • Sacrifice of Isaac
  • Living on After Death
  • Child Sacrifice & the God of Israel
  • From El to Yahweh
  • A Tribal Deity
  • Summary: Religion of the Patriarchs
  • Try It: Religion of the Patriarchs
Jacob & the Twelve Tribes
  • Goals: Jacob & the Twelve Tribes
  • From Abraham to Isaac
  • Sons of Isaac
  • Wives of Jacob
  • Jacob Leaves Haran
  • Jacob Reunites with Esau
  • Dinah
  • Shechem
  • Jacob Encounters God
  • The Twelve Tribes
  • Summary: Jacob & the Twelve Tribes
  • Try It: Jacob & the Twelve Tribes
The Joseph Cycle
  • Goals: The Joseph Cycle
  • From Canaan to Egypt
  • A Cycle of Stories
  • Young Joseph
  • Sibling Rivalry
  • Potiphar
  • Joseph in Prison
  • Joseph & the Pharaoh
  • Joseph Sees His Brothers
  • A Final Test
  • Death of Jacob
  • Summary: The Joseph Cycle
  • Try It: The Joseph Cycle
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Exodus from Egypt

Ancient Egypt
  • Goals: Ancient Egypt
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Earliest Egyptians
  • Historical Periods
  • Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • Akhenaten
  • Summary: Ancient Egypt
  • Try It: Ancient Egypt
In Egypt
  • Goals: In Egypt
  • Dating the Exodus
  • Tentative Consensus
  • Moses & the Hyksos
  • Floating into Power
  • Moses Meets God
  • Yahweh & Adonai
  • Sacredness of Names
  • Convincing the Pharaoh
  • The Plagues
  • Summary: In Egypt
  • Try It: In Egypt
The Way Out
  • Goals: The Way Out
  • Pesach
  • A Mixed Crowd
  • Which Way Did They Go?
  • The Crossing
  • Song of Miriam
  • Trouble Along the Way
  • Mount Sinai
  • Decalogue
  • Piety & Morality
  • Ark of the Covenant
  • Approaching Canaan
  • Summary: The Way Out
  • Try It: The Way Out
Covenant in the ANE
  • Goals: Covenant in the ANE
  • Ancient Near Eastern Treaties
  • Ancient Near Eastern Legal Statements
  • Respect & Responsibility
  • Covenant Codes
  • Law Code of Hammurabi
  • Covenant Tradition
  • Summary: Covenant in the ANE
  • Try It: Covenant in the ANE
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In the Promised Land

Canaanite Culture
  • Goals: Canaanite Culture
  • Independent Kingdoms
  • Neighboring Kingdoms
  • El & Asherah
  • Asherah & God
  • Ba’al Myths
  • Divine Agriculture
  • Summary: Canaanite Culture
  • Try It: Canaanite Culture
Conquest of Canaan
  • Goals: Conquest of Canaan
  • Deuteronomistic Historian
  • Obedience Yields Prosperity
  • Archaeological Questions
  • When & How Did the Conquest Occur?
  • Joshua
  • Covenant Renewal
  • Formation of the Tribal League
  • Summary: Conquest of Canaan
  • Try It: Conquest of Canaan
The Judges
  • Goals: The Judges
  • Who Were the Judges?
  • Obedience & Disobedience
  • Responsibilities of the Judges
  • Deborah & Barak
  • Gideon
  • The Man Who Would Be King
  • Samson
  • Summary: The Judges
  • Try It: The Judges
Goals: Rise of the Monarchy
  • Philistines
  • Loss of the Ark
  • Samuel
  • Views of the Monarchy
  • King Saul
  • David & Goliath
  • United Monarchy
  • King David
  • Summary: Rise of the Monarchy
  • Try It: Rise of the Monarchy
Fall of the United Monarchy
  • Goals: Fall of the United Monarchy
  • A New King
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Beginnings of the Hebrew Bible
  • Expansion of Israel
  • Temple in Jerusalem
  • Worship in High Places
  • Kingdom Building Has Its Price
  • Solomon’s Disobedience
  • Divided Kingdom
  • Summary: Fall of the United Monarchy
  • Try It: Fall of the United Monarchy
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Order Out of Chaos

Yahwist Creation Narrative
  • Goals: Yahwist Creation Narrative
  • Two Creation Narratives
  • Adam & Eve
  • Etiologies
  • Serpent & Satan
  • Original Sin
  • Shared Themes
  • Cain & Abel
  • Shepherds & Younger Siblings
  • Tower of Babel
  • Summary: Yahwist Creation Narrative
  • Try It: Yahwist Creation Narrative
Priestly Creation Narrative
  • Goals: Priestly Creation Narrative
  • Order & Goodness
  • Traditional Readings of Genesis
  • The Scopes Trial & Evolution
  • Evolutionary Theory
  • Creationism
  • Synthesis?
  • Summary: Priestly Creation Narrative
  • Try It: Priestly Creation Narrative
ANE Creation Narratives
  • Goals: ANE Creation Narratives
  • Walking in Memphis
  • Egyptian Creation Stories
  • Enuma Elish
  • Players & Plot
  • Similarities with Genesis
  • Contrast with Genesis
  • Atrahasis Epic
  • Atrahasis Epic & Genesis
  • Summary: ANE Creation Narratives
  • Try It: ANE Creation Narratives
Genesis & Flood Narratives
  • Goals: Genesis & Flood Narratives
  • Flood as a Common Theme
  • Multiple Authors
  • Flood & Covenant
  • Atrahasis Epic Flood Narrative
  • Gilgamesh Epic Flood Narrative
  • Death of Enkidu
  • Utnapishtim & Eternal Life
  • Ancient Near Eastern Flood Narratives
  • Being Human Is Being Mortal
  • Summary: Genesis & Flood Narratives
  • Try It:  Genesis & Flood Narratives
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Ancient Near Eastern Prophecy

Nature of Ancient Prophecy
  • Goals: Nature of Ancient Prophecy
  • Prominence of Prophets
  • Defining Prophecy
  • Hebrew Terms for Prophet
  • Prophets Are Not Angels
  • Ancient Prophets Are Messengers
  • Prophecy Then & Now
  • Prophets & Symbolic Action
  • Inspired Proclaimers
  • Hallucinogens & the Israelite Prophets
  • Summary: Nature of Ancient Prophecy
  • Try It: Nature of Ancient Prophecy
Prophecy & Eschatology
  • Goals: Prophecy & Eschatology
  • Eschatology
  • Prophetic Eschatology
  • Apocalyptic Eschatology
  • Comparing Eschatologies
  • Summary: Prophecy & Eschatology
  • Try It: Prophecy & Eschatology
Obtaining Oracles
  • Goals: Obtaining Oracles
  • Empires & Prophecy
  • Divination
  • Omens for the King
  • Passive Divination
  • Summa Alu
  • Extispicy
  • Manipulative Divination
  • Professional Diviners
  • Prophetic Ecstasy
  • Summary: Obtaining Oracles
  • Try It: Obtaining Oracles
Prophecy in Mesopotamia
  • Goals: Prophecy in Mesopotamia
  • Turning to Mesopotamia
  • Mari Letters
  • Divination in Mesopotamia
  • Ecstatics in Mesopotamia
  • Divinatory Dreams
  • Messenger Formulae
  • Where Have All the Prophets Gone?
  • Neo-Assyrian Prophecy
  • Summary: Prophecy in Mesopotamia
  • Try It: Prophecy in Mesopotamia
Prophecy in Egypt & Canaan
  • Goals: Prophecy in Egypt & Canaan
  • Prophecy in Egypt
  • Practical Wisdom
  • Prophecy in Ancient Canaan
  • Wen-Amun in Byblos
  • The Inscription of Zakir
  • Duel on Mt. Carmel
  • King Jehu
  • Royal Guilds
  • Summary: Prophecy in Egypt & Canaan
  • Try It: Prophecy in Egypt & Canaan
Ancient Israelite Prophecy
  • Goals: Ancient Israelite Prophecy
  • Priestly Clothing
  • Ephod
  • Urim & Thummim
  • Binary Response
  • Visitors in Dreams
  • Summary: Ancient Israelite Prophecy
  • Try It: Ancient Israelite Prophecy
Early Israelite Prophets
  • Goals: Early Israelite Prophets
  • Early & Classical Israelite Prophets
  • Saul’s Prophetic Frenzy
  • Elisha’s Trance Ecstasy
  • Israelite Prophecy Guilds
  • Ahab & Jehoshaphat at War
  • Jehoshaphat’s Prophets
  • Micaiah’s Prophecy
  • Transition Prophets
  • Nathan’s Prophecy
  • From Early to Classic Israelite Prophets
  • Summary: Early Israelite Prophets
  • Try It: Early Israelite Prophets
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Classical Israelite Prophets 1

Amos
  • Goals: Amos
  • Mode of Classical Prophecy
  • Historical Setting of Amos
  • Omri Dynasty
  • Naboth & His Vineyard
  • Attacks from Assyria
  • Who Was Amos?
  • Amos’s Message
  • Sins of Israel
  • Duty to Neighbor
  • Defending Israel
  • Hope for the Restoration of Israel?
  • Summary: Amos
  • Try It: Amos
Hosea
  • Goals: Hosea
  • Historical Setting of Hosea
  • A Man & His Message
  • Marriage Metaphor
  • Sins of the Hebrews
  • Hosea in the Courtroom
  • Mother & Son
  • Hope for Israel
  • Assyrian Threat
  • Hezekiah
  • Assyria Attacks Jerusalem
  • Summary: Hosea
  • Try It: Hosea
I Isaiah
  • Goals: I Isaiah
  • Oldest Scroll
  • Three Isaiahs?
  • Who Was Isaiah?
  • Social Justice & Hope for Israel
  • Theological Debauchery
  • Throne Vision
  • Oracle of Isaiah
  • Isaiah’s Optimism
  • The God of All Peoples
  • A Lack of Caution
  • Summary: I Isaiah
  • Try It:  I Isaiah
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Classical Israelite Prophets 2

Micah
  • Goals: Micah
  • Micah & His Message
  • Literary History of Micah
  • Summary: Micah
  • Try It: Micah
Jeremiah & His Contemporaries
  • Goals: Jeremiah & His Contemporaries
  • Josiah, King of Judah
  • Fall of Nineveh
  • Zephaniah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Chaldeans on the March
  • Babylonian Exile
  • Life of Jeremiah
  • Literary History of Jeremiah
  • Summary: Jeremiah & His Contemporaries
  • Try It: Jeremiah & His Contemporaries
Messages of Jeremiah
  • Goals: Messages of Jeremiah
  • Protected by God
  • Jeremiah’s Message
  • The Temple Sermon
  • Confessions of Jeremiah
  • Metaphors of Jeremiah
  • Individual & Corporate Responsibility
  • The New Covenant
  • Summary: Messages of Jeremiah
  • Try It: Messages of Jeremiah
Ezekiel
  • Goals: Ezekiel
  • Life in Exile
  • Religion without a Temple
  • Ezekiel’s Oracles
  • After the Destruction of Jerusalem
  • Ezekiel’s Message
  • Messages of Hope
  • Summary: Ezekiel
  • Try It: Ezekiel
II Isaiah
  • Goals: II Isaiah
  • Return to Jerusalem
  • Life of II Isaiah
  • II Isaiah’s Message
  • God’s Universal Rule
  • What Happened to the Accusations?
  • God’s Use of Cyrus
  • The Suffering Servant
  • Summary: II Isaiah
  • Try It:  II Isaiah
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Going Home to Jerusalem

The Chronicler
  • Goals: The Chronicler
  • Introducing the Ketuvim
  • The Restoration
  • Second Temple Period
  • Returning to Jerusalem
  • Chronicles & Genealogies
  • The Chronicler: Sources
  • An Ecclesiastical Historian
  • The Chronicler & King David
  • The Temple Mount
  • Summary: The Chronicler
  • Try It: The Chronicler
Haggai & Zechariah
  • Goals: Haggai & Zechariah
  • Temple-Building Prophets
  • Book of Haggai
  • Book of Zechariah
  • Joshua, the High Priest
  • The Worshipping Community
  • Last Chapters of Zechariah
  • Summary: Haggai & Zechariah
  • Try It: Haggai & Zechariah
Ezra & Nehemiah
  • Goals: Ezra & Nehemiah
  • One Book, Two Men
  • A History of the Restoration
  • Who Was Ezra?
  • The Torah in the Time of Ezra
  • Ezra’s Reforms
  • Foreign Wives, Foreign Gods
  • Who Was Nehemiah?
  • Rebuilding & Governing Jerusalem
  • Nehemiah’s Reforms
  • Summary: Ezra & Nehemiah
  • Try It: Ezra & Nehemiah
Joel, Obadiah & Malachi
  • Goals: Joel, Obadiah & Malachi
  • The Prophet Joel
  • The Day of the Lord
  • Dating Joel
  • Obadiah
  • Against Edom
  • Malachi
  • Malachi’s Dialogues
  • Daughters of a Foreign God
  • Day of the Lord
  • Summary: Joel, Obadiah & Malachi
  • Try It: Joel, Obadiah & Malachi
Jonah
  • Goals: Jonah
  • Fish & Whales
  • Who Is Jonah?
  • The Story of Jonah
  • A Psalm of Thanksgiving
  • Visit to Nineveh
  • A Universal God
  • Summary: Jonah
  • Try It: Jonah
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Books of Wisdom

Wisdom Literature
  • Goals: Wisdom Literature
  • What Is Wisdom Literature?
  • The Satire of the Trades
  • Teachings of Amen-em-ope
  • Maat
  • Practical Wisdom in Mesopotamia
  • Speculative Wisdom Literature
  • Caprice & Injustice
  • Babylonian Theodicy
  • Ludlul Bel Nemeqi
  • The Pessimistic Dialogue
  • Israelite Wisdom Literature
  • Summary: Wisdom Literature
  • Try It: Wisdom Literature
Proverbs
  • Goals: Proverbs
  • Wisdom Literature in Tanakh
  • Apart from the Covenant
  • Fragments of Wisdom Literature
  • Outline of Proverbs
  • Solomon’s Authorship
  • Patterns in Proverbs
  • Egyptian Influence on Proverbs
  • Mesopotamian Influence on Proverbs
  • Proverbs as Practical Wisdom
  • God as the Guarantor of Practical Wisdom
  • Summary: Proverbs
  • Try It: Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
  • Goals: Ecclesiastes
  • Speculative Wisdom in Tanakh
  • Introducing Qoheleth
  • All Is Vanity
  • The Folly of Wisdom
  • To Everything There Is a Season
  • From Practical to Speculative Wisdom
  • Summary: Ecclesiastes
  • Try It: Ecclesiastes
Job
  • Goals: Job
  • A Popular Book
  • No Conventional Wisdom
  • Prose & Poetry
  • Who Was Job?
  • Satan’s Idea
  • Friends & Curses
  • God Speaks
  • Theological Diversity
  • Summary: Job
  • Try It: Job
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Songs & Stories

The Book of Daniel
  • Goals: The Book of Daniel
  • Apocalypticism & Hope
  • Dating Daniel
  • Two Versions
  • Literary Continuity of Daniel
  • Stories of Daniel & His Friends
  • Apocalyptic Visions
  • The Son of Man
  • Confession of Sins
  • A Hopeful Ending
  • Summary: The Book of Daniel
  • Try It: The Book of Daniel
The Book of Ruth
  • Goals: The Book of Ruth
  • Ruth & Esther
  • The Character of Ruth
  • Dating Ruth
  • A Novella
  • Ruth’s Story
  • Enter Boaz
  • Levirate Marriage
  • A Happy Ending
  • Summary: The Book of Ruth
  • Try It: The Book of Ruth
Lamentations
  • Goals: Lamentations
  • Music in Scripture
  • Poetic Parallelism
  • Historical Setting of Lamentations
  • Alphabetic Acrostics
  • The Ruin of Jerusalem
  • Lament in the Ancient Near East
  • Summary: Lamentations
  • Try It: Lamentations
Psalms
  • Goals: Psalms
  • Most Popular Book in the Bible?
  • Authorship of Psalms
  • Structure of Psalms
  • Individual & Community
  • Five Types of Psalms
  • Psalms of Praise
  • Songs of Thanksgiving
  • Individual & Collective Laments
  • Royal Psalms
  • The God of the Psalms
  • Summary: Psalms
  • Try It: Psalms
Song of Songs
  • Goals: Song of Songs
  • A Song Between Lovers
  • An Allegory?
  • Dating the Song
  • Not Wisdom Literature
  • A Study in Metaphors
  • The Plot of the Song
  • Ancient Near Eastern Parallels
  • Summary: Song of Songs
  • Try It: Song of Songs
The Book of Ruth
  • Goals: The Book of Ruth
  • Ruth & Esther
  • The Character of Ruth
  • Dating Ruth
  • A Novella
  • Ruth’s Story
  • Enter Boaz
  • Levirate Marriage
  • A Happy Ending
  • Summary: The Book of Ruth
  • Try It: The Book of Ruth
The Book of Esther
  • Goals: The Book of Esther
  • Purim
  • Jewish Community in Persia
  • Esther Becomes Queen
  • Enter the Villain
  • A Plot Against the Jews
  • Esther Steps Up
  • The Plot Thickens
  • Jewish Identity in Exile
  • Women in Tanakh
  • Summary: The Book of Esther
  • Try It: The Book of Esther
Reconstruction to Revolt
  • Goals: Reconstruction to Revolt
  • After Reconstruction
  • Alexander the Great
  • Koine
  • After Alexander
  • Seleucid Rule
  • Hellenistic Syncretism
  • Antiochus IV
  • Judas Maccabeus
  • Pseudo-Aristeas
  • Summary:  Reconstruction to Revolt
  • Try It: Reconstruction to Revolt
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